# How to convert seconds to minutes and hours with vanilla JS

Working with time in JavaScript can be tricky. Today, I’m going to show you how to convert seconds in minutes and hours with vanilla JS.

Fair warning: we’re going to need to do some math.

## Converting hours

Let’s say you had a timestamp in seconds that you wanted to display in `HH:MM:SS` format.

``````var timestamp = 9462;
``````

First, let’s get hours.

There are 60 seconds in a minute, and 60 minutes in an hour. We’ll divide our `timestamp` by `60`, and then by `60` again. That leaves us with `2.6283` repeating.

``````var timestamp = 9462;

// 2.628333333
var hours = timestamp / 60 / 60;
``````

We want just hours, though. We can use `Math.floor()` to round down to the nearest whole number.

``````var timestamp = 9462;

// 2
var hours = Math.floor(timestamp / 60 / 60);
``````

## Converting minutes

Next, let’s get minutes.

There are 60 seconds in a minute. Let’s divide our `timestamp` by `60`, and use `Math.floor()` to round down to the nearest whole number. That leaves us with `157`, because it also includes all of the minutes that in our `hours`.

``````var timestamp = 9462;

// 2
var hours = Math.floor(timestamp / 60 / 60);

// 157
var minutes = Math.floor(timestamp / 60);
``````

We’ll multiply our `hours` by `60` to get its value in minutes, then subtract to it from our `minutes` to get the correct value.

``````var timestamp = 9462;

// 2
var hours = Math.floor(timestamp / 60 / 60);

// 37
var minutes = Math.floor(timestamp / 60) - (hours * 60);
``````

## Calculating seconds

Finally, let’s calculate seconds.

For this one, we can use the remainder operator. It returns the amount leftover after dividing by a number.

We’ll use it to divide our `timestamp` by `60` (the number of seconds in a minute). The number we get back is the seconds after we remove all of the minutes.

``````var timestamp = 9462;

// 2
var hours = Math.floor(timestamp / 60 / 60);

// 37
var minutes = Math.floor(timestamp / 60) - (hours * 60);

// 42
var seconds = timestamp % 60;
``````

## Formatting time

Now that we have our `hours`, `minutes`, and `seconds`, we’re ready to format them into our `HH:MM:SS` format.

We can use simple string concatenation for this. JavaScript will type cooerce our integers into strings.

``````// 2:37:42
var formatted = hours + ':' + minutes + ':' + seconds;
``````

This might be good enough, but what if you wanted a leading `0` on the `hours`? What if our `minutes` or `seconds` were single digit numbers?

We can convert our numbers to strings and use the `padStart()` method to enforce a minimum number of digits.

``````// 02:37:42