Skip to main content Accessibility Feedback

Conditionally loading JavaScript only when the browser supports it

One trick I use to reduce bandwidth consumption on older devices is to conditionally load my JavaScript files.

When a page on my site loads, I do a quick little check to make sure the browser and device support the JavaScript methods and browser APIs that I use in my scripts. If it does, I load my JavaScript file asynchronously. If not, the visitor gets a more basic experience.

Here’s how it all works…

Feature Testing #

In the footer of my site, I include a little bit of inline JavaScript that runs a small feature test.

This determines the capabilities of the visitor’s browser and device. I usually test support for two or three JavaScript methods or Browser APIs that have the least amount of browser support.

That typically means things like addEventListener() and querySelector().

if ('querySelector' in document && 'addEventListener' in window) {
    // The browser supports these methods. 
    // We can load our JS.
}

You could also check for things like the existence of particular DOM element.

For example, if you had a syntax highlighting script, you might only want to load that on pages with code to be highlighted. You could check for pre or code elements before loading it.

if ('querySelector' in document && document.querySelector('pre')) {
    // There's code on the page to highlight.
    // We can load our syntax highlighter.
}

Loading and external JavaScript file #

If the browser and device pass the test, I’ll use a little bit of JavaScript to load my external JS file with all of my scripts.

This involves a few steps:

  1. Create a new script element using document.createElement().
  2. Add the URL for my external JavaScript file as the script element src attribute.
  3. Inject the script element into the DOM using insertBefore().
if ('querySelector' in document && 'addEventListener' in window) {

    // Create a script tag
    var script = document.createElement('script');

    // Assign a URL to the script element
    script.src = '/path/to/my/scripts.js';

    // Get the first script tag on the page (we'll insert our new one before it)
    var ref = document.querySelector('script');

    // Insert the new node before the reference node
    ref.parentNode.insertBefore(script, ref);

}

A helper method #

If you find yourself doing this a lot (or at least more than once on a site), there’s a useful helper method you can use to make it easier: loadJS from Filament Group.

Inside your feature test, you’d call loadJS('/path/to/my/scripts.js') instead of manually creating a new element, getting the first script element, and so on.

if ('querySelector' in document && 'addEventListener' in window) {

    // Load our scripts
    loadJS('/path/to/my/scripts.js');

}

🚀 Make 2018 the year you master JavaScript! My pocket guides and mini courses are short, focused, and made for beginners. You can do this!

Have any questions or comments about this post? Email me at chris@gomakethings.com or contact me on Twitter at @ChrisFerdinandi.

Get Daily Developer Tips